‘’IDEAS THAT HAVE HARMED MANKIND ‘ SUMMARY’ gives us a brief prove that the whole mind of the writer as well as his theory about life.There are two causes of human‘s suffering first is by nature and other one is by himself human being. First one is some extent has been under controlled but other is not.Human misfortune  are two types one is from the nature of nature and the other is from the man himself due to false beliefs, the fear of the natural disasters can be avoided, but within today’s era, humans are the enemy of humans. 

The biggest reason for the harmful acts of human beings that one person has evil passion rather than their thoughts or beliefs. There was a time when humans used to burn other humans and the people watching them were much more likely than that scene . Actually, it is an evil passion to see a person burning, not a fun. But all those who see the burning of heretics  claim that right to do so .An example of this is that the way a country wins the war, it enlivens the other enemy and sees that it is righteous act.

The spices above give us the answer that Oppression

Envy and the Damage :-

The biggest reason for false belief is envy. And women also laugh at each other and compete against one another.But the reason for envy is very much seen nowadays in males, even in the offices we are often seen, in the working place inside it, compared to one another. When a person gets promoted in an office, other person pulls his legs, hinders his path . And what is left behind is envy. Envy often takes the person towards the wrong path.


National pride gives birth to false beliefs which are dangerous for mankind .In fact, people do pride on their caste, on their class, on their nationality, on their creed, on their sex, on their perceptions etc. It was considered for a long time Englishmen were superior to French due to heavy power .One Englishman could killed three French men and this attitude further extended and they realized that same  behavior towards Germans.

The Cruelty Caused by the Belief in Witchcraft:-

In‘IDEAS  THAT HAVE  HARMED MANKIND ‘ SUMMARY , we are also seen that Russell  narrates that there are some people those believe that in their lives that miseries take place due to others , and this false belief creates new type of notion that is witchcraft and black magic  .Having been lived in science era , there are numbers of people who believe in witchcraft because the Bible itself supports to witchcraft,

“Thou shalt not suffer a witch to live.”

In history , many people had lost their live in the hand of witchcraft and black magic ,the courts on that time were accused of not only committed black magic but also denied its validity.



As we know that nationality is very much harmful for mankind but on the other hand racial pride is too much harmful for humanity .It was considered that  by  a long time before  by British and American themselves that they were superior to Chinese It was not surprising for them they had strange believed , they had had white skin rather Chinese had  yellow skin. This is odious believe that a even though a layman can not believe on that notion , how is possible a color may cause of superiority .That is not enough  here , British and Americans used to considered Chinese  scholars  with narrow minded .Racial pride brings about the destruction of the nations , even though  British also looked down upon Asian eyes with hatred eyes when they ruled on them. Same is the case with Jews they were determined that they were the special nation of the world those were created by God as a special quota. On the other hand, Christians  thoughts that they were superior to Jews .Here Russell tries to convey the real meaning of his essay , like that racial pride can be only demolished by education .And we should feel that there is no scared  cow in this world , all are human beings created by same God .



The pride of sex is harmful idea for mankind .Usually, the males authority realize that they are superior to females .Russell does not believe in innate superiority of the male .It is admitted that man superior to female because he has males power over  female , or he may beat a woman whenever she asks her rights to man otherwise they have same power , both the sex are same in power . It is another  false  believe that women are more emotional than men and they have less intelligibility in themselves .These effects cause of break down of marriage system , this sacred relation comes into battle field .Relation comes in the shape of boss and servant , mutual understanding vanishes out from the surface .It is not astonishing , even in civilized country women are treated very badly .


The pride of class is not new issues , it is running to come by the past time , in all era , we had to see a long breach between middle class and upper class .Somehow , it  has been demolished now-a-days but it is now present in Soviet Russia , there the son of proletarian enjoys himself very much advantages over the son of bourgeious.USA all the time claims that there is equality , this is merely a slogan , no equality yet there ,the people who have a lot of wealth , they do not have respect those are inferior to them. Even in England there is no equality, there is snobbery.


Wrong beliefs do not nourished in political system, it also grows up in religions .Christianity believe in they are superior to the non-believers . In the past  , Christians and Muslims were against each other in this sense , one was on right place and other was on wrong place .Both are claim , they are deservers of heaven of God and one is destined to hell .


There so many delusions in this world  ,that can harmed to humanity , in which mostly to consider themselves special force of special God. Cormwell  was very influenced that he was chosen by special divine law who offered him to suppressing to Catholics and other notorious person. Now-a-days Marx breaks out his supremacy above Proletariat.

The Danger of Selfishness:-

Some people say that love is compulsory for society survival but Russell refuses it and narrates that in public , as in private life , tolerance is essential for survival of society because we love one  another  and those people that we know about them personally but we do not love those people whom we do not know privately .He also describes that we should not make unwanted prophecies about future until we know about hundred percent. He gives an example Bismarck who won wars  three times and ultimate unified Germany. People of Germany felt that they were on the right path but after it by Bismarck’s policy they faced two awful defeated in (1914-18 and world war 2). Actually  ,  it is  Bismarck ‘s policy brings about other people unite against Germany .

The Utility of Social Science:-

Perhaps , “Social Science” is some extent has been demolished the problems of mankind .Social science has been helped in employment .Slumps are not allowed in now-a –days with the help of social science. Russell’s realizes that one government should be stable so that the next world war might be avoided.

For more related assignments click here


Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Related Post