The Functions of a Teacher Critical Summary

The Functions of a Teacher Critical Summary:-

This is a new topic that Bertrand Russell has been chosen in his essay ‘The Functions of a Teacher’ , and its critical summary will tell about what is real functions of the teacher . In this essay Russell tells us that what is real function of the teacher and what he has been performing now a days ,in Russell’s point of view , teachers are not performing their duty rather they are puppets in the hands of government as well as their employers .They are not so free that they openly educate their students and what is reality . As we know that teaching is a scared profession as well as passion.  That days   have gone when   a teacher was considered to be safe guard of civilization.  Now a days he has concern with his only  personal  benefits .  As  far as his passion is concerned with that professional is also died.  A teacher can perform his duty if he is free from intellectually but unfortunately, now a  days  teachers have been tool of  propaganda , he has to teach what his employers want .This is a main reason that he is bound to do so .In this sense , a teacher has to instill prejudices and wrongs beliefs in his teaching. On the contrary of it ,  in ancient time , that was not exist , the teacher was very much free from authority and he could teach what he wanted ,no doubt is about that in ancient time some philosophers had to pay price in exchange of their beliefs and doctrines .For example , Socratre sentenced to death and Plato went to Jail for their ideas but these  did not resist  their work.

 In modern time , a teacher is a servant of estate or employers.

“The teachers have no authority to decide what shall be taught or what the methods of instruction are to be.”

The Functions of a Teacher Critical Summary:-

 N ow , will discuss about the essay ” The Functions of a Teacher Critical Summary” A teacher is bound to teach state education , it is not wrong to say that estate education is necessary for a man but sometimes , his may be harmful to humanity, its consequences have been seen in history  , history page was printed  by this creed , actually state education spreads dogmas and creed ,

“The only way to prevent totalitarianism in our highly organized world is to secure a certain degree of independence for bodies performing useful public work, and among such bodies teachers deserve a foremost place.”

in past , Hitler had done this , he installed dogmatic creed in his young people .Dogmatic creeds bring about ignorance , and it engulfs the method of free discussion.

The Real Purpose of the Teacher Defence against Dogmatism:-

The teacher main function is to prevent dogmatism in society , it is bad lucky for humanity if dogmatic beliefs spreads everywhere and these beliefs  would win the  war and new ideas have been taken last breath in the lap of dogmatism .Dogmatists are giving the lesson of hatred  against one another , that is common in modern time. So , at the end , this is main duty of the teacher .

The Basic Duties of  Teachers:-

In comes to seeing , usually , teachers are indulged in in  political parties or some religious parties , it is very common these beliefs come into their students . In fact , Russell is keen opponent of it, he says that a teacher ‘s duty is that he should create an ability in his student which is impartial investigation . Actually , Russell talks about scientific approach as well as scientific thoughts .What is wrong and what is right , it should be on students  own their thoughts not on creed belief .The teachers should not instill any dogma or any prejudices of any privatization or government  in their students. He should see both sides of the  picture.

The Teacher is Guardian of civilization:-

It is a teacher who is guardian of the cilvization because he knows that very well about civilization than any other person. They should introduce civilization before their pupils ;

The function of a teacher, however, is not merely to mitigate the heat of current controversies. He has more positive tasks to perform, and he cannot be a great teacher unless he is inspired by a wish to perform these tasks. Teachers are more than any other class the guardians of civilization. They should be intimately aware of what civilization is, and desirous of imparting a civilized attitude to their pupils.”

But here is a question what is civilization?

Civilization, Mind  Setting :-

As far as civilization is concerned of any country could not be judged by its progressive attitude , may be a country is going on progress but it cannot called be civilized country .Civilization is not means , a country has so many motor cars , bathrooms, machinery , so many building and so on. However, civilization is totally differ from it, it is a mind set , it is positive thinking, it is primarily connected with knowledge , emotions etc .As far as knowledge matter is concerned , it is key to inquiry ,with the help of knowledge a man can understand what is wrong and what is right. What has been done in past , what will be in future. So far as emotions are concerned , a man adopts the ability that he is not only man in this world rather others are present who want also comforts, in this way, he never thinks about himself , his self centered belief does not alive. With the help of emotions and knowledge a teacher should do his work as well as real duty.

A well known teacher  has an ability ,

Overworked Teachers:-

There are so many teachers that are not performing their real function because behind of it there are so many reasons.  First  many  teachers  are given to overworked for preparing examinations instead of lightening their mind . Their students are prepared for jobs , for gaining marks  rather than liberalizing mind .

“Most teachers are overworked and are compelled to prepare their pupils for examinations rather than to give them a liberalizing mental training. The result is that many of them become harassed and nervous, out of touch with recent work in the subjects that they teach, and unable to inspire their students with a sense of the intellectual delights to be obtained from new understanding and new knowledge.”

Curbs on Teachers’ Freedom of Thought:-

Secondly,  the  teachers are bound to conceal their right opinion , they are not enough free to openly discuss what is correct opinion and what is wrong one. In this result the students are mislead by their wrong  guideline .

A  Teacher ‘s  Functions  to  Create  the Spirit of Tolerance:-

There is no doubt about that democracy is very much acceptable in all over the world but teacher’s  role is significant cannot be refused  because it is a teacher who creates an ability of tolerance  in his students  , in this world there are so many people that they have different opinions , different outlooks  , but it is a real teacher function is that he should nourish the quality of tolerance I his students. A man who is not accustomed of traveling or who has no experience of journey , he actually falls prey of intolerance because he has no idea of dealing with people and their valuable norms and manners , he will consider his beliefs and ideas are on the right path rather others are on wrong direction .These things make cause of dogmatism in this world .These things can be cleared up by tolerance and tolerance comes out only education and a man educates by only a teacher .Unfortunately , in our school system tolerance is not learning , only nationalism  and people of others countries are inferior is being taught there.

Eradicate of Interference  in  the  Work of Teacher :-

It is wrong to say that only teachers are ignorant of their functions while there are so many hurdles on their way that do not do proper work. Today the teachers are not very much independence than past. Now a  days the teachers are hostages in a lot of shackle that cannot be broken in very easy way.They do not decide what should he teach and what should not. Eventhough they can’t adopt their method of teaching .

“The teachers have no authority to decide what shall be taught or what the methods of instruction are to be.”

Here, Russell suggests that a teacher must be free in their decision , liberty his by birth right but unfortunately , there are a lot of authorities who are using them.

“The only way to prevent totalitarianism in our highly organized world is to secure a certain degree of independence for bodies performing useful public work, and among such bodies teachers deserve a foremost place.”

A teacher can be do his function if he will be free by mind otherwise he will be only toll of a government or any other authority . At the the essay “The Functions of a Teacher” reveals that it is not only critical summary but also complete functions of a teacher.

For more related assignments click here

 Regardless of how feasible or otherwise Russell’s ideas on the role of a teacher may be, we do not, and perhaps cannot, have ‘his teacher’ in our educational institutions today. Affirm or refute with evidence from his works, especially ‘Unpopular Essays’. (2012)


Q.        Can we check the social, economic and political decline if we succeed in making our teachers impartial and neutral in the real sense of the word? Elaborate with reference to Russell’s ‘Unpopular Essays’. (2010)


Q.        What are the practical difficulties in employing ideal teachers and how can they be overcome? Discuss with reference to Russell’s ‘Unpopular Essays’.



Q.        Russell’s views on teaching and education have been of immense use down the years. Elaborate with special reference to his ‘Unpopular Essays’. (2007)


Q.        What safeguards does Russell suggest against a teacher’s becoming a tool in the hands of government and how far are they adequate?

                                                                                   (P.U. 2003)


Q.        What functions does Russell recommended for the teacher? Do you find it viable in our own society?

            (P.U. 2005)


Q.        Russell views on teaching and education have been of immense use down the years. Elaborate with special reference to his ‘Unpopular Essays’. (P.U. 2007)


Q.        What are practical difficulties in employing ideal teacher, and how can they be overcome, discuss with reference to unpopular essays. (P.U. 2008)

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